Ilustración de Néstor Alonso. Fuente original: Flickr
Ilustración de Néstor Alonso. Fuente original: Flickr
Cuando los alumnos acaban bachiller salen del instituto con errores. En esta serie se abordarán los más comunes y a la vez los más importantes.
1. Adjective + noun.
Es desafortunadamente normal que los estudiantes con 18 años digan cosas como
*It is a matter very important cuando lo correcto es It is a very important matter.
2. No agreement with noun
En castellano los adjetivos concuerdan con los sustantivos en género y número (Esas casaS son rojaS). En inglés los adjetivos no cambian de forma. Los alumnos escriben
*These houses are reds cuando en inglés sería These houses are red.
3. -s for the 3rd person singular
El presente simple es lo primero que se enseña en los colegios e institutos pero no es para nada lo más fácil al aprender inglés. En cualquier caso es inadmisible que el alumnado salga diciendo por ejemplo
*She go to the supermarket cuando debería añadir la -s (en este caso -es) y decir She goes to the supermarket.
4. Participle in compound tenses
Se usa el participio en los tiempos verbales compuestos. Los alumnos no lo dominan y escriben cosas como *
I could have win the race en vez de I could have won the race o *Someone has broke into my house cuando bien escrito sería Someone has broken into my house.
5. To + infinitive
Después de to no se escribe la forma de participio, sino bare infinitive (infinitivo sin to). Deberían erradicarse ejemplos como
*People decided to continued sitting down para verlo bien escrito: People decided to continue sitting down.
Ésto estoy leyendo. ¿Qué os parece?
1. Non-native speakers using English for international communication now outnumber its native speakers.
2. Regional variation is the (acceptable) rule rather than the (unacceptable) exception.
3. Speakers of EIL are not ‘foreign’ speakers of the language, but ‘international’ speakers. An intrinsic part of this claims, is the right for speakers to express their (L1) regional group identity in English by means of their accent, as long as the accent does not jeopardize international intelligibility.
4. It is a current irony that L2 learners are nowadays the only English speakers who are still encouraged to approximate an RP or General American (GA) accent as closely as possible, while regionally accented (native speakers, but not non-native speakers) teachers are not discouraged from teaching in the accent of their birth if they so desire.
5. It is somewhat surprising that correctness continues to be judged in relation to native speaker usage in English Language Teaching classrooms around the world.
6. However, this is not to make a claim that as far as non-native speaker English accents are concerned, anything is acceptable.
7. If we are not careful, and very vigilant, English language will quite rapidly break up into a series of increasingly mutually unintelligible dialects, and eventually into different languages.
8. While mixed-L1 student groups are optimum for the development of accomodation skills, the optimum teacher, as Seidlhofer (1999) argues, is often a bilingual English speaker who shares her students’ L1. This teacher will have acquired the core pronunciation features but will also have clear traces of her regional accen. She thus provides a more pedagogically realistic and sociolinguistically reasonable model for her studens.
JENKINS, J. (2002). A Sociolinguistically Based, Empirically Researched Pronunciation Syllabus for English as an International Language. En Applied Linguistics 23 (1): 83-103. doi: 10.1093/applin/23.1.83
“The essence of intercultural education is the acquisition of empathy–the ability to see the world as others see it, and to allow for the possibility that others may see something we have failed to see, or may see it more accurately. The simple purpose of the exchange program…is to erode the culturally rooted mistrust that sets nations against one another. The exchange program is not a panacea but an avenue of hope….”
“La esencia de la educación intercultural es la adquisición de la empatía; la capacidad de ver el mundo como otros lo ven, y permitir la posibilidad de que otros puedan ver algo que nosotros no hemos podido, o bien verlo con más precisión. El simple propósito del programa de intercambio… es minar la culturalmente arraigada desconfianza que establecen las naciones entre sí. El programa de intercambio no es la panacea, es más bien un camino de esperanza…”
William Fulbright (1905-1995)
‘mid‘ en Old English (OE en adelante) significaba ‘con’ (with) y por eso matrona se escribe ‘midwife’, que etimológicamente sería ‘con la mujer’
En un principio with significaba “contra, en contra, fuera” y restos de ese significado quedan también en el inglés actual en palabras como withstand o withdraw. Sin embargo en Middle English pasó a denotar “asociación, combinación y unión” por influencia de la palabra vidh del Old Norse (antiguo nórdico). En este sentido, sustituyó a la palabra de OE ‘mid‘.
Otro resto de inglés antiguo en el inglés actual es, por ejemplo, ‘werewolf’ (hombre lobo).
En OE se usaba ‘wer‘ como “hombre” y ‘wif‘ como “mujer”. ‘wer’ empezó a desaparecer y fue reemplazada por ‘man’ para significar no solo hombre (masculino), sino también hombre en el sentido de ‘human being’. ‘wif’ siguió su evolución normal añadiendo ‘-man’ con este último significado.
Hoy se conmemora el Día Internacional del Beso y acabo de recordar una canción que cantaba a los niños en los campamentos, cuando veía que dos chavales se gustaban, para picarles.
Pondré como ejemplos dos nombres al azar:
Javi and Laura
sitting in a tree,
First comes love,
then comes marriage,
then comes the baby
in a baby carriage!
*K-I-S-S-I-N-G se lee deletreando: kei ai es es ai en yi.
En este audio se puede escuchar una estrofa final que yo no cantaba y no conocía que dice así:
Sucking his thumb,
Wetting his pants,
Doing the hula, hula dance!
¡AY! Esos amores cuando tienes 9 ó 10 años… 😉
Imagen| Kissing under a tree
Acabo de ver por enésima vez la película Dublineses (Los Muertos), una joya que John Huston rodó en 1987.
El film se basa en la obra homónima de Joyce, que reunía quince historias cortas. Ésta es la última de ellas.
Os dejo el final de la maravilla que publicó James Joyce allá por 1914.
Aquí tenéis el texto en inglés, y también es recomendable ver el vídeo de la película, que está en castellano.
Excerpt of James Joyce’s Dubliners “The Dead”
Gabriel, leaning on his elbow, looked for a few moments unresentfully on her tangled hair and half−openmouth, listening to her deep−drawn breath. So she had had that romance in her life: a man had died for her sake. It hardly pained him now to think how poor a part he, her husband, had played in her life. He watched her while she slept, as though he and she had never lived together as man and wife. His curious eyes rested long upon her face and on her hair: and, as he thought of what she must have been then, in that time of her first girlish beauty, a strange, friendly pity for her entered his soul. He did not like to say even to himself that her face was no longer beautiful, but he knew that it was no longer the face for which Michael Furey had braved death.
Perhaps she had not told him all the story. His eyes moved to the chair over which she had thrown some of her clothes. A petticoat string dangled to the floor. One boot stood upright, its limp upper fallen down: the fellow of it lay upon its side. He wondered at his riot of emotions of an hour before. From what had it proceeded? From his aunt’s supper, from his own foolish speech, from the wine and dancing, the merry−making when saying good night in the hall, the pleasure of the walk along the river in the snow. Poor Aunt Julia! She, too, would soon be a shade with the shade of Patrick Morkan and his horse. He had caught that haggard look upon her face for a moment when she was singing `Arrayed for the Bridal’. Soon, perhaps, he would be sitting in that same drawing−room, dressed in black, his silk hat on his knees. The blinds would be drawn down and Aunt Kate would be sitting beside him, crying and blowing her nose and telling him how Julia had died. He would cast about in his mind for some words that might console her, and would find only lame and useless ones. Yes, yes: that would happen very soon.
The air of the room chilled his shoulders. He stretched himself cautiously along under the sheets and lay down beside his wife. One by one, they were all becoming shades. Better pass boldly into that other world, in the full glory of some passion, than fade and wither dismally with age. He thought of how she who lay beside him had locked in her heart for so many years that image of her lover’s eyes when he had told her that he did not wish to live.
Generous tears filled Gabriel’s eyes. He had never felt like that himself towards any woman, but he knew that such a feeling must be love. The tears gathered more thickly in his eyes and in the partial darkness he imagined he saw the form of a young man standing under a dripping tree. Other forms were near. His soul had approached that region where dwell the vast hosts of the dead. He was conscious of, but could not apprehend, their wayward and flickering existence. His own identity was fading out into a grey impalpable world: the solid world itself, which these dead had one time reared and lived in, was dissolving and dwindling.
A few light taps upon the pane made him turn to the window. It had begun to snow again. He watched sleepily the flakes, silver and dark, falling obliquely against the lamplight. The time had come for him to set out on his journey westward. Yes, the newspapers were right: snow was general all over Ireland. It was falling on every part of the dark central plain, on the treeless hills, falling softly upon the Bog of Allen and, farther westward, softly falling into the dark mutinous Shannon waves. It was falling, too, upon every part of the lonely churchyard on the hill where Michael Furey lay buried. It lay thickly drifted on the crooked crosses and headstones, on the spears of the little gate, on the barren thorns. His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly through the universe and faintly falling, like the descent of their last end, upon all the living and the dead.